5 Incredible things that happened in Science

Much significant scientific research happened in 2016. The good and Bad news resulted from many such types of research. Some of the good things that happened in science are listed:

Evidence of PLANET 9
Planet 9 - PROXIMA BIn 2014, Astronomers announced the existence of the unknown planet in the far outer solar system. The gravitational effects of which would explain the improbable orbital configuration of a group of Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) the orbit mostly beyond the Kuiper Belt.
In January 2016, researchers Konstantin Batygin and Michael E. Brown at Caltech explained how massive the outer planet would be. The predicted planet could be a Super-Earth, 5000x that of Pluto. Batygin and Brown suggested Planet Nine was a primordial giant planet core that was ejected from its initial orbit by an encounter with Jupiter during the nebular epoch of the Solar System and was later perturbed into a stable orbit by a distant encounter with a passing star or by the solar nebula.
Planet 9 does not have any official name unless its existence is confirmed with strong evidence. This is just a fine evidence for researchers to work upon. Once confirmed by the researchers IAU will certify the name proposed by its discovers.


Earth like ExoPlanet discovered just 4 Light years away.
NASA is continuously in search for life outside the solar system. Kepler Space Telescope astronomers discovered the first Earth sized planet orbiting star in the “habitable zone” of the Proxima Centauri, stating liquid water will be potentially existing on the newly discovered world.
PROXIMA B, the newly discovered planet sparked the excitement of many Astrophysicists, with the tantalizing the possibility that it might be similar in crucial as respect to Earth.
“There is possibility stated that this planet might be able to host life.” Yes… Said by a researcher from Queen Mary, University of London.
PROXIMA B is nearest of all ExoPlanet. Till date, more than 1000 ExoPlanet are discovered by a single telescope that is Kepler Space Telescope which reached orbit in 2009. The nearest Exoplanet is 4.2 light years away, so prospect of finding any Proximese aliens are still remote.
Pic Credit: Nature, Pale Red Dot


EBOLA Vaccine
EbolaEbola Virus Disease (EVD), or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of human and other primates caused by Ebola virus. This virus spreads by direct contact with body fluids, such as blood, of an infected human or other animals. This virus has the high risk of death, killing between 25 to 90% of those infected. More than 15k death record in an outbreak in the year 2013-2016. Another outbreak of this deadly virus began in Africa in May 2017 in the Democratic Republic of Congo which record 10-15 deaths this was in control as Vaccine was developed in the year 2016 but then too death was recorded as availability. The vaccine was initially developed decade prior to 2014, but none was approved to clinically used on Human. The success registered in the year 2016, a study found that EBV-EBOV vaccine to be 70-100% effective against the Ebola Virus, making it the first proven vaccine against the death. VSV-EBOV has been developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada, with development subsequently taken over by Merck Inc.


Measles was eliminated in the USA
Measles is the highly contagious infection caused by measles virus. Human is the natural host of this virus, no animal reservoirs are known to exist. Fever, running nose, cough and inflamed eyes were some of the common symptoms of this virus. Two or three days after the start of symptoms, small white spots may form inside the mouth, known as Koplik’s spots. A red, flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body typically begins three to five days after the start of symptoms. More than 500k death was recorded one of the most vaccine preventable deaths of any disease. It was an airborne disease which could easily spread through the coughs and sneezes of those infected. Vaccine the combination of several others named MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Vaccine) was developed. In 2016, USA totally eliminated this deadly outbreak to spread within and outside the USA.


Hole in Ozone layer found Healing
Earth’s stratospheric Ozone layer is a naturally occurring belt of Ozone gas that sits 10-30 miles above Earth surface. This gas protects from harmful Ultraviolet rays emitted from Sun that can cause Skin Cancer and Cataracts and also can damage crops and marine life. Depletion of the ozone layer, which blocks such harmful ways was one of the great environmental scandals in the 1970s. This scandal can into light in the late 1980s when it flags international crises and led to banning CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) in aerosols and Fridge. SAGA III is a technology which is placed in ISS (International Space Station) to continue monitoring the Ozone to ensure it keeps repairing. In 2016 NASA interview, the report from SAGA III the ozone layer is found to be getting recovered. Almost half of the ozone that we lost from the 1980s to 1970s is recovered which is a good sign. They are healing itself and expect it to be fully repaired by the middle of this century.

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